Border Gateway Protocol (BGP):
The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) computes routes between the tens of thousands of smaller networks, called Autonomous Systems (ASes), which make up the Internet.
ASes range from large ISPs and content providers to small businesses and universities.
BGP is notoriously vulnerable to devastating attacks and configuration errors. Consequently, nation states and corporations are in constant danger from attacks that utilize BGP's insecurity to disconnect ASes from the Internet and to launch highly effective man-in-the-middle attacks.
A particularly worrisome and common attack vector is IP prefix hijacking, where an AS advertises in BGP an IP prefix not belonging to it.
Prefix hijacks are effective and easy to launch, with the extra benefit of a plausible excuse: benign configuration errors.
Every year several high-profile incidents resulting from prefix hijacks make the news (see some examples here), and many others go under the radar.
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